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FAQs What is Programming Languages of Computers

Programming languages are the set of instructions given to computer in order to do some specific works

It includes high level languages such as Basic , C, C++, Cobol, Fortran , Ada and Pascal .

The group of keywords for each language is totally different and there is a special sentence structure for grouping the programme instructions.

Programming languages are of several types

High level language-These are easy in comparison to the user friendly languages but are more complex than that of computer friendly

Machine language - computer understands its own language which is in form of binary codes.

Different types of CPU’s have their own machines languages

Assembly language

They are similar to machine language and their level lies between high level language and machine language.

They are easier to programme

They allow the users to use names as alternate to the numbers

Fourth Generation Language

They are of higher level than that of high level languages commonly known as 4GL.

They are extremely different from machine languages and come into that category of computer language that is close to human language.

Whatever the language we use but we need to convert out programs into machine language so that computer can understand it.

There are two ways to convert a program into the machine language

A compiler translates any high level language of program into an executable machine language.

The compiler translate the entire document at once

Programme interpreter converts the high level language into machine language line by line.

It is very slow in comparison to the compiler.

What is Operating system

The operating system manages hardware and software resources of the computer and lies between the hardware and the application software.

The operating system is a program

Communicates between the various pieces of hardware like the video card, sound card, printer the motherboard and the application.

Operating System functions can be divided into the following three groups

Allocates resources

Manages disks and files

Monitors activities

 

Common Operating Systems

Windows 10, Windows XP, Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems.

Windows NT is an operating system

This is applicable for client server type networks.

Windows CE is for palmtop and handheld computers

The Macintosh from Apple is a multitasking operating system

UNIX is an operating system.

Unix was developed by Bell labs

Unix handles complex scientific application

Linux is an operating system similar to UNIX

Application Software

Word processor

Microsoft Word is a Word processor

You can create letter, resume, report and documents

Characteristics of word processor

Editing feature any type of mistake can be rectified

Permanent storage facility

Bullets and numbering- can be used by it if needed

Documents can be stored as long as desired

Find and replace any particular word can be searched or replaced in entire document

Formatting - the typed text can be made in any form or style

Graphics -   It provides the facility of incorporating drawings in the documents

Header and footer - A header and footer is text or graphics such as a page number, the date or a company logo that is usually printed at the top or bottom of each page in a document.

Mail merge it is a facility which enables to print a large number of letter/documents with more or less similar text

Page orientation - there are two types of page orientation.

Portrait that is lengthwise

Landscape that is widthwise

Spell check is capable of checking spelling mistakes and also can suggest possible alternatives for incorrectly spelt words

Tables can also be created in MS Word

Thesaurus - By using Thesaurus you can change a word with any of its synonyms

MS Excel

It  is an application software from Microsoft.

It is a spreadsheet application.

Cells are organized into rows and columns to add, organize and manipulate data.

It helps to calculate, organize and format data.

 

MS Power Point

It is an application to generate presentations.

Used for presenting charts, graphics, slides etc.

Used for education, training or business and other purposes.

 

MS Access

It is an RDBMS - Relational Database Management System

It stores, organizes and manipulates data.

Database is a collection of data of a particular type.

Tables contain organized data.

Each table has rows and columns.

It is used for storing and retrieving data.

What is Data Communication and Network

For sharing data when we link two or more computing devices together it is called Networking.

Networks are a mix of computer hardware and computer software.

Signals are electric or electromagnetic encoding of data

Signaling is propagation of signal along suitable communication medium.

Transmission is communication of data achieved by the propagation and processing of signals

In parallel data transmission each wire carries a bit of information.

In series data transmission each set is sent sequentially one after another and it is slower than that of parallel transmission

In synchronous transmission, characters are transmitted as groups with control characters in the beginning and at the end of the bit train

In a Synchronous transmission, each character is transmitted separately

In simplex mode of communication channel is used in one direction

In half duplex mode of communication channel is used in both direction

In full duplex mode the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time

Computers are connected with each other for communication creating the computer network

Computer network is of following types

Cluster Area Network

Controller Area Network

Desk Area Network

Local Area Network

Metropolitan Area Network

Personal Area Network

Server Area Network

Small Area Network

Storage Area Network

System Area Network

Wide Area Network

What is LAN  Basics

A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance

A number of terminals can be used in the whole building

All the terminals are connected to a main computer called server.

 

Types of LAN

Star LAN number of stations is connected to control station

The station passes information to the central station and then proceed it to the destination station

If one node of the network fails it does not affect the connectivity

Ring LAN

Stations are connected by cables using point to point link

Network access is not under control of central station

Each station can pass data to its adjacent node

Data travels through each node so failure in a single node cause failure of network

Bus LAN

There is no repeater

Stations are common and single communication line

Data is sent in packets and related station picked up by it

Any fault diagnosis is difficult

What is WAN Basics

A wide area network spans a large physical distance

Geographically dispersed collection of LANs is called a WAN

Router  - a network device connects LANs to a  WAN

Like the internet, Most WANs are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management.

WANs use technology like ATM, frame relay and x.25 for connectivity

 

Types of WAN

Public Networks

These network are owned and run by telecommunication authorities

These are made available to an individual subscriber or an organisation

Public Switched Telephone Networks

PSTN has been designed for telephone, which requires modem for data communication

It is used for FAX machine also

It is characterised by low speed transmission, analog transmission, less bond width, easy access, cover almost every place

Public Service Digital Network

PSDN is popular mode for connecting public and private mail system to have electronic mail services with other firms

It is characterized by highly reliable, high quality, communication, cost effective usage

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN is used for voice, video and data services,

It uses digital transmission

It combines both circuit and packet switching

What is Topology

Physical layout of the network is called network topology

All the devices are connected among themselves.

The point of connection to the network by the stations are called computer nodes or link stations

A network topology

When there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes it is called a fully connected or complete topology

Types of Network Topology

 

Bus topology

Mesh topology

Ring topology

Star topology

Tree topology

 

What is Client Server Networking

It is a network application architecture.

The client is separated from the server.

It is a scalable architecture.

Each computer or proves on the network is either a client or a server

Servers can be stateless or stateful.

Sequence diagrams show the interaction between client and server .

Sequence diagrams are standardized in the UML.

What is  Web Browser - Communicates with web servers over the internet to fetch and display web page content.

Common Browsers

Chrome

Firefox

Internet Explorer

Peer to Peer networking

Based on computing power at the edges of a connection.

P2P network are used for sharing content like audio, video, data or anything in digital format

P2P network can also mean grid computing

File transfer protocol is a typical example of a non peer to peer networking

What is a Modems

Modem is the device needed to translate between the analog phone line and the digital computer.

The function of modem is to modulate the digital signals.

It modulates digital signals from the computer into an analog one to send data out over the phone line.

It demodulates the analog signal into a digital one for an incoming signal.

Digital modems

A digital modem does not have a convert between analog and digital signals

A digital modem is faster than an analog modem.

Types of Digital Modems

Cable Modem

DSL

ISDN Modem

What is Internet

Internet is

Global Computer Network

Network of Networks (public, private, business, government and academic networks among others)

It is a worldwide network

It transmit data by using Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

It connects devices globally by Protocols

It has access to wide range of information services and resources.

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