FAQs What is Programming Languages of Computers
Programming languages are the set of instructions given to computer in order to do some specific works
It includes high level languages such as Basic , C, C++, Cobol, Fortran , Ada and Pascal .
The group of keywords for each language is totally different and there is a special sentence structure for grouping the programme instructions.
Programming languages are of several types
High level language-These are easy in comparison to the user friendly languages but are more complex than that of computer friendly
Machine language - computer understands its own language which is in form of binary codes.
Different types of CPUâ€™s have their own machines languages
They are similar to machine language and their level lies between high level language and machine language.
They are easier to programme
They allow the users to use names as alternate to the numbers
Fourth Generation Language
They are of higher level than that of high level languages commonly known as 4GL.
They are extremely different from machine languages and come into that category of computer language that is close to human language.
Whatever the language we use but we need to convert out programs into machine language so that computer can understand it.
There are two ways to convert a program into the machine language
A compiler translates any high level language of program into an executable machine language.
The compiler translate the entire document at once
Programme interpreter converts the high level language into machine language line by line.
It is very slow in comparison to the compiler.
What is Operating system
The operating system manages hardware and software resources of the computer and lies between the hardware and the application software.
The operating system is a program
Communicates between the various pieces of hardware like the video card, sound card, printer the motherboard and the application.
Operating System functions can be divided into the following three groups
Manages disks and files
Common Operating Systems
Windows 10, Windows XP, Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems.
Windows NT is an operating system
This is applicable for client server type networks.
Windows CE is for palmtop and handheld computers
The Macintosh from Apple is a multitasking operating system
UNIX is an operating system.
Unix was developed by Bell labs
Unix handles complex scientific application
Linux is an operating system similar to UNIX
Microsoft Word is a Word processor
You can create letter, resume, report and documents
Characteristics of word processor
Editing feature any type of mistake can be rectified
Permanent storage facility
Bullets and numbering- can be used by it if needed
Documents can be stored as long as desired
Find and replace any particular word can be searched or replaced in entire document
Formatting - the typed text can be made in any form or style
Graphics - It provides the facility of incorporating drawings in the documents
Header and footer - A header and footer is text or graphics such as a page number, the date or a company logo that is usually printed at the top or bottom of each page in a document.
Mail merge it is a facility which enables to print a large number of letter/documents with more or less similar text
Page orientation - there are two types of page orientation.
Portrait that is lengthwise
Landscape that is widthwise
Spell check is capable of checking spelling mistakes and also can suggest possible alternatives for incorrectly spelt words
Tables can also be created in MS Word
Thesaurus - By using Thesaurus you can change a word with any of its synonyms
It is an application software from Microsoft.
It is a spreadsheet application.
Cells are organized into rows and columns to add, organize and manipulate data.
It helps to calculate, organize and format data.
MS Power Point
It is an application to generate presentations.
Used for presenting charts, graphics, slides etc.
Used for education, training or business and other purposes.
It is an RDBMS - Relational Database Management System
It stores, organizes and manipulates data.
Database is a collection of data of a particular type.
Tables contain organized data.
Each table has rows and columns.
It is used for storing and retrieving data.
What is Data Communication and Network
For sharing data when we link two or more computing devices together it is called Networking.
Networks are a mix of computer hardware and computer software.
Signals are electric or electromagnetic encoding of data
Signaling is propagation of signal along suitable communication medium.
Transmission is communication of data achieved by the propagation and processing of signals
In parallel data transmission each wire carries a bit of information.
In series data transmission each set is sent sequentially one after another and it is slower than that of parallel transmission
In synchronous transmission, characters are transmitted as groups with control characters in the beginning and at the end of the bit train
In a Synchronous transmission, each character is transmitted separately
In simplex mode of communication channel is used in one direction
In half duplex mode of communication channel is used in both direction
In full duplex mode the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time
Computers are connected with each other for communication creating the computer network
Computer network is of following types
Cluster Area Network
Controller Area Network
Desk Area Network
Local Area Network
Metropolitan Area Network
Personal Area Network
Server Area Network
Small Area Network
Storage Area Network
System Area Network
Wide Area Network
What is LAN Basics
A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance
A number of terminals can be used in the whole building
All the terminals are connected to a main computer called server.
Types of LAN
Star LAN number of stations is connected to control station
The station passes information to the central station and then proceed it to the destination station
If one node of the network fails it does not affect the connectivity
Stations are connected by cables using point to point link
Network access is not under control of central station
Each station can pass data to its adjacent node
Data travels through each node so failure in a single node cause failure of network
There is no repeater
Stations are common and single communication line
Data is sent in packets and related station picked up by it
Any fault diagnosis is difficult
What is WAN Basics
A wide area network spans a large physical distance
Geographically dispersed collection of LANs is called a WAN
Router - a network device connects LANs to a WAN
Like the internet, Most WANs are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management.
WANs use technology like ATM, frame relay and x.25 for connectivity
Types of WAN
These network are owned and run by telecommunication authorities
These are made available to an individual subscriber or an organisation
Public Switched Telephone Networks
PSTN has been designed for telephone, which requires modem for data communication
It is used for FAX machine also
It is characterised by low speed transmission, analog transmission, less bond width, easy access, cover almost every place
Public Service Digital Network
PSDN is popular mode for connecting public and private mail system to have electronic mail services with other firms
It is characterized by highly reliable, high quality, communication, cost effective usage
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN is used for voice, video and data services,
It uses digital transmission
It combines both circuit and packet switching
What is Topology
Physical layout of the network is called network topology
All the devices are connected among themselves.
The point of connection to the network by the stations are called computer nodes or link stations
A network topology
When there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes it is called a fully connected or complete topology
Types of Network Topology
What is Client Server Networking
It is a network application architecture.
The client is separated from the server.
It is a scalable architecture.
Each computer or proves on the network is either a client or a server
Servers can be stateless or stateful.
Sequence diagrams show the interaction between client and server .
Sequence diagrams are standardized in the UML.
What is Web Browser - Communicates with web servers over the internet to fetch and display web page content.
Peer to Peer networking
Based on computing power at the edges of a connection.
P2P network are used for sharing content like audio, video, data or anything in digital format
P2P network can also mean grid computing
File transfer protocol is a typical example of a non peer to peer networking
What is a Modems
Modem is the device needed to translate between the analog phone line and the digital computer.
The function of modem is to modulate the digital signals.
It modulates digital signals from the computer into an analog one to send data out over the phone line.
It demodulates the analog signal into a digital one for an incoming signal.
A digital modem does not have a convert between analog and digital signals
A digital modem is faster than an analog modem.
Types of Digital Modems
What is Internet
Global Computer Network
Network of Networks (public, private, business, government and academic networks among others)
It is a worldwide network
It transmit data by using Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
It connects devices globally by Protocols
It has access to wide range of information services and resources.