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English

Look at the following sentences:

Wild Animals Stay in Car!

He is out!

He is in the rest room!

Please taste the petrol.

What is your good name?

I will revert back.

Spelling errors, incorrect grammar or wrong choice of words can distort the English Language and Communication.

Effective communication is one of the most important skills for professionals to be effective and successful at workplace and career.

Communication Skills are essential for individual success whether it is at the interpersonal, intergroup, organizational or external levels.

English Grammar

Parts of Speech

Noun

Noun is a word for place, person or things.

Kinds of noun

Proper Noun

Name of particular person or place

Sam, Chennai, Smith

The words begin with a capital alphabet.

Common Noun

Name of common place person or things

Boy, girl, city, village or to

Collective Noun

Name of group of persons or things

Army, jury

Material noun

Name of substances or materials

Cotton, gold

Abstract Noun

Name of quality state or action

Kindness, cruelty, smiles.

Pronoun

Pronoun is a word in place of a noun.

Kinds of pronouns

I, you, we, her, she

Distributive pronouns

Each, either, neither

Demonstrative pronouns

This, that, those, these

Indefinite pronouns

Some, any, somebody, anybody, no one

Reflexive Pronouns

Myself, yourself, herself, itself

Emphatic pronouns

When emphasized

Myself, ourselves, themselves

Relative Pronouns

Who, whose, whom, which

Interrogative Pronouns

Who, whom whose

Exclamatory Pronoun

What!

Reciprocal pronouns

One another, each other

Adjective

Adjective is a word which describes or qualifies a noun or pronoun.

Kinds of adjectives

Proper Adjectives

Adjectives formed from proper nouns

India - Indian

America – American

Russia – Russian

Possessive Adjectives

My, his, her, your, there are called possessive adjectives.

My pen, your house

Distributive Adjective

Either, neither, each, every

Neither of the two rooms was empty.

Every statement is false.

Demonstrative  Adjective

Two types –

Definite – that, this, same

 Indefinite – a, an some, any, other

Numerical Adjective - two types

Definite – one two, first, second,

Indefinite – many, some, few

Quantitative Adjectives –defines quantity

Little, whole, much

Qualitative Adjectives –show quality

Small, big, good, ugly

Interrogative Adjectives –To ask questions

Whose pen is this?

Which book you like?

Exclamatory Adjective – Express Emotion or surprise

What a story!

Degrees of comparison

Positive Degree

No comparison is made- Mohan is a good actor

Comparative Degree

Comparison of two persons or things

Ram is more talented than Shyam

This house is more spacious than that house.

Superlative Degree

Denotes highest quality

Ram is the best student

He is the best singer

Adverb

Adverb modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb or other adverb.

Kinds of Adverbs

According to Uses

Simple Adverb

You are quite wrong.

Interrogative Adverb

Why is he not eating?

Relative Adverbs

Let me know when she will come.

According to Meaning

Adverbs of Time

She comes here daily.

Adverbs of Place

He left his care here.

Adverbs of Frequency

She called you twice.

Adverbs of Quantity or Degree

These mangoes are almost ripe.

Adverbs of Manner

Shyam fought bravely

Adverbs of Reason

He therefore left office.

Adverbs of Negation and Affirmation

She did not meet her.

Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word which joins two sentences, words or phrases.

Ram and Shyam left for work.

Preposition

Preposition is a word which is used before a noun or pronoun and shows its relation with other words of the sentence.

The book is on the table.

The cow is under the tree.

Articles

An Article is an adjective. It describes a noun

English has two articles

A/An

The

Definite Article - The

Indefinite Article - A / An

1. Let us go to a movie.

A movie - It means any movie hence indefinite article

2. Let us go to the movie

The movie - It means a specific movie - hence definite article

An - It is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound

An orange, an umbrella, an ice-cream

A is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound

A boy, a train, a book

The - It is used for a particular thing or person.

Bring me the pen

Get me the key.

Exceptions to usage of article

Some common types of nouns do not take an article.

Names of languages and nationalities- Hindi, Tamil, Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian

Sports - cricket, volleyball, hockey,

Subjects: Science, History, Chemistry, Physics

 

Tense and Time

Time – Indicates the period when the action is done or time of action.

Tense – Indicates forms of verb.

Kinds of Tense

Past tense

Sub categories – Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous

Present tense

Sub categories – Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous

Future Tense

Sub categories – Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous

Simple Present tense

Simple Present Tense - when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly

Earth revolves around the sun

Present Continuous Tense - actions happening now / at the time of speaking.

It is snowing.

Present Perfect Tense – Activities completed in immediate past.

The movie has just started.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense – Action which began in the past but continuing at present

He has been studying for two hours

Simple Past Tense – Action completed in Past.

I left college last summer.

Past Continuous Tense -   Action going on in the past

He was playing piano

Past Perfect Tense – Action completed in the past

We had left before he came.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense – Action began at a certain time in the past and had continued upto that time.

We had been living here since 2016.

Simple Future Tense – Action still to take place

He will come tomorrow.

Future Continuous Tense – Action which will be in progress in future

I shall be driving.

Future Perfect Tense – Action completed in specific time in future.

I shall have reached by then

Future Perfect Continuous Tense – Action in progress over a period of time ending in future.

I shall have been reading for three hours.

Idioms and Phrases

A bitter pill - Unpleasant fact but must be accepted

A dime a dozen - Anything that is common

A hot potato - A controversial issue

Achilles' heel - A weakness

Actions speak louder than words - People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than by what they say

All ears -Listening intently

Apple of discord -Anything causing trouble

At the drop of a hat -Instantly

Back to the drawing board -Start planning all over again

Barking up the wrong tree - Looking in the wrong place

Beat around the bush -To treat a topic, but omit its main points

Beating a dead horse -To uselessly dwell on a subject far beyond its point of resolution

Bed of roses -Easy and comfortable

Best of both worlds- A situation wherein someone has the privilege of enjoying two different opportunities

Bite off more than one can chew –Handle more activity than one can manage

Bite the bullet –To start

Bite the dust -Euphemism for dying or death

Burn the midnight oil -To work hard

By the skin of one's teeth - Narrowly; barely Call it a day -To declare the end of a task

Chink in one's armor -An area of vulnerability

Clam up- To stop talking

Cold shoulder- To display aloofness

Couch potato - A lazy person

Crocodile tears -Fake tears

Don't count chickens before they hatch -Don't make plans for something that may not happen;

Elephant in the room - Issue left unresolved

Every cloud has a silver lining - Be optimistic

Fit as a fiddle -In good physical health

For a song - almost free

From A to Z - Comprehensively

From scratch / to make from scratch -Start from the beginning

Get your goat -To irritate someone

Grass is always greener on the other side -Think others have it better

Have a blast -To have a good time

Hit the road -To leave

Hit the sack -To go to bed to sleep

Hit the spot -To be just right

It takes two to tango - It takes more than one person to start a fight

Jump ship -Leave

Kick the bucket    - Euphemism for dying or death

Kick the habit – Stopping a habitual practice

Kill two birds with one stone -To accomplish two different tasks at the same time

Let the cat out of the bag –Secret revealed

Look a gift horse in the mouth - To find fault with something that has been received as a gift or favor

Nip It In the Bud -To stop something at an early stage

Off the hook -To escape a situation of responsibility,

Once in a blue moon -Rarely

Piece of cake -Easy or simple

Pull somebody's leg -Teasing

Put the cat among the pigeons -To create a disturbance and cause trouble

Raining cats and dogs -Raining really strong or hard

Rock the boat - Do or say something that will upset people or cause problems

Spill the beans -Reveal someone's secret

Take with a grain of salt -To treat someone's words with a degree of skepticism

Through thick and thin - In both good and bad times

Thumb one's nose -To express scorn or to disregard

To steal someone's thunder -To take credit for something someone else did

Two a penny -Cheap

Under my thumb - Under my control

Under the weather -Feel sick or poorly

Wild goose chase - A frustrating or lengthy undertaking that accomplishes little

 

Common Punctuation Marks

Question Mark (?)

A question mark is used at the end of a sentence which is a question.

E.g.  Have the girls completed the test?

Comma (,)

Commas are used in sentences to separate information into readable units.

A set of commas is a means of separating items in a list within a sentence.

The details required as name, date of birth, address and telephone number

Hyphen (-)

A hyphen links two or more words

Ice-cream

Dashes (_)

Dashes enclose extra information.

Have an ice-cream-or would you prefer desert?

Parentheses ( )

Parentheses are brackets.

Parentheses indicate additional information in sentences.

E.g.  It was surprising to see Ram come so early (as he often came late) and others were astonished.

Exclamation Mark (!)

An exclamation mark denotes emotion.

It is used at the end of sentence.

How pathetic!

Ellipsis (…)

An ellipsis consists or three full stops.

 It indicates that some information or material have been left out.

Full stop (.)

Full stop indicates the end of a sentence.

Full stop indicates abbreviated words

Full stop is used to punctuate numbers and dates

E.g. the dog is completely black.

The teacher will be Mr. Mohan.

All work should be submitted by 7.8.18.

Colon (:)

Colon used to indicate that a lists or quotations etc..

E.g. Buy these items: a packet of peanuts, two loaves of bread and a kilogram of steak,

Semicolon (:)

Separates two complete sentences that are closely linked.

E.g. To err is human: to forgive, divine

Apostrophe (β€˜)

Apostrophe (β€˜) is used for contractions. A contraction is a shortened version of a word.

It’s raining.

Apostrophe (β€˜) is used to show possessives

John’s book

Learn To Differentiate

Affect - To influence          

Effect - To cause or bring about

All right - Two words - completely correct or acceptable     

Alright - Not in use today

All together - Assembled into one group         

Altogether - Completely or entirely

All ready - (two words) Everything is in order 

Already - Previously or prior to a specified time

Among - Used with three or more persons or things

Between - Used to differentiate between two people or things

Amount - Used with reference to money or things that can't be counted          

Number - Refers to items that can be counted; a specific amount

Anyone - Used if any is important and is to be emphasized

Any one - Used to refer to a specific person, place or thing

Balance - Strictly speaking, the difference between debits and credits   

Remainder - Something left over in any situation

Complement - To complete, is fitting, or adds a finishing touch    

Compliment - To flatter or offer words of praise

Continual - Continuing, but stop-and-go activity       

Continuous - Constant activity with no letup

Credible - Capable of being true or believable

Creditable - Performance worthy of credit or special mention

Each other - When only two persons are involved    

One another - When three or more persons are involved

Eminent - Famous or noteworthy          

Imminent - Expected to happen soon

Except - To exclude from a group or single out          

Accept - To receive what may be offered or to assent

Farther - Referring to specific distance

Further – To indicate extent or degree

Infer - Objectively draw a conclusion    

Imply - To hint or suggest

Latest - Refers to the last condition that is still in effect      

Last - Refers to final things -after all others

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