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FAQs Indian Geography

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What are the Geographical Features of India?
India is situated north of the equator.
Tropic of Cancer almost divides India into two parts - It  passes through Jabalpur in MP.
India is the seventh-largest country in the world.
Total area of - 3,287,263 square kilometers
Indira Point in Great Nicobar Island – Southern most point  in Indian Territory..

Southern Most Point of Indian main land - Kanyakumari (also Known as Cape Comorin).
3,214 km from north to south
2,933 km from east to west.
It has a land frontier of 15,200 km.
India has a coastline of 7,516.6 km.
India has 2.4 Percent of total world area.
India accounts for 16 Percent of world population.
Main Land Coastline – 6100 kms
Coastline - Mainland India + Andaman Nicobar, Lakshadweep measures 7516.6 kms.

India Total Land Mass
Plains 43.3 %
Plateaus – 27.7 %
Hills – 18.6%
Mountains – 10.7 %
In South India Eastern Side Gulf of Mannar and Palk Straight Separate India from Srilanka.

Total land neighbors: 7
Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and  Myanmar.

India’s Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal.
Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands in Arabian Sea.
Uttar Pradesh state borders maximum number of eight states.
They are Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan,  MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.

Tropic of cancer passes through eight states
Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West  Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

Indian Standard Median passes through (82030’E Meridian) UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh

India can be divided into three units
Mountains in the North
Plains in North India and Coast
Plateau region of South

Where does Standard Time Meridian pass?
Standard Time Meridian – Passes through Middle of India –Naini near Allahabad

Which are the Important Mountains of India?
Himalaya’s means – abode of snow
Youngest Fold Mountains
Comprises mainly sedimentary rocks
Himalaya Highest peaks
Mt. Everest – Nepal – height 8850 m
Mt. Kanchenjunga – India – height 8598 m
Naga Parbat – India 8126 m
Mt. Annapurna – India -8078 m
Mt. Nanda Devi - India -7817 m

Tran –Himalayan Zone
This zone lies to the north of the Himalaya
It has important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, and Zanskar.
The Highest peak is K2 or Godwin Austin (Pak occupied Kashmir)
Other high peaks Hidden Peak, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum
The biggest glacier in the world is Siachen. It is in Nubra valley.Baltaro, Batura, Biafo and Hispar are the other important  glaciers..

Which are the Important Peninsular Mountains?
The Aravalli Mountains in Rajasthan are world’s oldest.
Guru Shikar - highest peak on which Mt.Abu is situated  (1722 m)
Vindhya Mountains- East to West in Madhya Pradesh
Satpura mountains –Dhupgarh – highest point 1350 m near Panchmarhi
Western Ghats or Sahyadris1600 km long
Average height 1200 m

Southern part separated by Palghat Gap.
Eastern Ghats
Highest peak – Mahendragiri -1501 m
Nilgiri or Blue Mountains
At the meeting place of eastern and western ghats
Highest peak Dodda Betta and Makurti
Highest peak in Peninsular India - Anamudi 2695 m Anaimalai Hills.
Southern most is Cardamom Hills

What are the Geographical Features of Plains of India?
Plains – South of the Himalayas and North of Peninsula
Plains formed by depositional activities of three major river systems
Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra
Soil alluvial
Western most portions occupied by Thar Desert.
Peninsular plateau
South of Indo Gangetic plain
Flanked by sea on three sides
Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats form east and west boundaries respectively.

Narmada River divides the region into two parts
The Malwa Plateau (North)
Deccan Plateau (South)
Vindhya Plateau is in south of Malwa Plateau.
Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau in India.
Island of India
Total Coast 7516 km

Gujarat has the longest coastline.
Indian territorial limits include 247 islands
Andaman & Nicobar group
Saddle Peak 737 m highest peak
Barren and Narcondam Islands are Volcanic islands.
The Arabian Sea Group (25 nos)
All islands in Arabian Sea are coral and surrounded by reefs.
North: Lakshadweep South: Minicoy

Which are the Important Rivers in India?
Two Main Groups
Himalayan Rivers and Rivers of Peninsula
Himalayan Rivers has three major River Systems
The Indus System, The Ganga System and The Brahmaputra  System
Indus System –Total length -2880 km
In India – 725 km
Rises in Tibet near Mansarovar Lake.
Tributaries of Sutlej, Ravi, Indus Jhelum, Chenab and Beas..

What are the important features of Ganga System?
Length – 2510 km
1450 km in Uttarakhand and UP
445 km Bihar
520 km in West Bengal
Ganga originates from Gangotri Glacier, Joins Alaknanda at Dev Prayag and Bhagirathi Joins Alaknanda at Dev Prayag.  From here the joint stream is called Ganga.
Ganga Tributaries –Yamuna, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, Ghagra, Gomti, Son and Damodar.

What are the Important Features of The Brahmaputra System?
Length 2960 km
Rises in Tibet
Brahmaputra is called Tsang Po in Tibet
Brahmaputra enters Arunachal Pradesh territory as Dihang.
In Bangladesh – Brahmaputra is known as Jamuna.
Jamuna and Ganga combined stream in Bangladesh is known as Padma.

Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the biggest delta in  the world known as Sundarbans.
It covers an area of 58,752 Km. Major Portion of the delta  is in Bangladesh.
On Brahmaputra is Majuli – the biggest river island in the
world.
Himalayan Rivers are perennial.

Rivers of Peninsula
Rivers are seasonal.
Rivers flowing in to Bay of Bengal and West Flowing Rivers
Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal
Mahanadi rises in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. Main tributaries are Tel, Seonath, Jonk, Hasdo, Mand, Ib, and Ong.
Godavari also known as Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga.
 

Longest peninsular river. Rises in Nashik.Main tributaries
Manjira, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, and Sabari.
Krishna originates in Western Ghats.
Cauvery – Largest Peninsular River
Also known as Ganga of South
From Brahmagiri Range of Western Ghats.
Tributaries –Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa.
Subarnarekha & Brahmani from Ranchi Plateau.
Ghaggar is the most important inland Drainage. (494 km)
originates from lower slopes of Himalayas to dry sands of
Rajasthan.

Chilka Lake – Largest Lake and largest brackish Lake of
India
Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir largest freshwater lake in India.
In Rajasthan salt is produced from Sambhar Lake.
Important lakes – Vembanad in Kerala, Kolleru in AP, and Pulicat in AP

Which are the three important gulfs in India?
Gujarat - Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Cambay and
Gulf of Mannar – between India and Srilanka.
 

What are the important features regarding Climate of India?
Tropical Monsoon Type of Climate
Climate influenced by Himalaya and Tropic of Cancer which  divides India into two. - Northern Zone and Southern Zone.
Warm temperate or sub tropical climate gives northern zone  cold winter seasons and hot summer seasons.
Southern tropical climate is warmer than north and does not  have clear cut winter..

What is the Coverage of Forests in India?
At present India has 20.64 % under forest cover.
Madhya Pradesh has the highest area under Forest followed  by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa.
Arunachal Pradesh – high per capita forest area.
Mangrove forests – West Bengal First Place
Lowest Forest area – Punjab and Haryana

How many National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in India?
National parks and wildlife sanctuaries
99 national parks
442 wildlife sanctuaries
 43 tiger reserves
Which are the Important National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in India?
Bandipur Sanctuary – along Karnataka - Tamilnadu Border
Chandraprabha Sanctuary in UP – Asiatic lion
 

Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand –Tigers
Dachigam Sanctuary in Kashmir – Hangul
Dudhwa National Park in UP
Ghana or Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur Rajasthan
Gir Forests in Gujarat – Home of Asiatic Lion
Hazaribagh National Park – Jharkhand
Jaldapara Sanctuary West Bengal for Rhinos
Kanha National Park – MP
Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam - One Horned Rhino
Mudumalai Sanctuary – TN

Nagarhole National park – Karnataka
Namdapha National Park – Arunachal Pradesh
Palamu Tiger Project – Jharkhand
Periyar Game Sanctuary – Kerala
Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary – Mysore Karnataka
Ranthambor National Park – Rajasthan
Sariska Sanctuary – Rajasthan
Shivpuri National Park – MP
Simlipal National Park – Odisha
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary – TN
Wild Ass Sanctuary, Gujarat - Wild Ass

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