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FAQs Modern Indian History

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Who was Shivaji?
Marathas rose to eminence with Shivaji
Parents Shaji Bhosle and Jijabhai
Ashtpradhan lived in the court of Shivaji
Who was Sambhaji?
Son of Shivaji
Aurangzeb army killed him
Son Sahu detained by Aurangzeb.

Succeeded  Sambhaji.
Later Shivaji II ascended the throne.
Released on the death of Aurangzeb.
Peshwa domination starts during his period.
First Peshwa – Balaji Viswanath
Last Peshwa Baji Rao –II
Signed subsidiary alliance with Lord Wesley in the year 1802.

Who are Sikhs?
Gurunanak – Founder of Sikhism. Born in Nankanasahib- Pakistan
Guru Angad – Gurumukhi  Script
Guru Ramdas - Got land from Akbar for establishment
Guru Arjan dev – Compiled Adhi Granth. Completed construction at Amritsar.
Guru Hargovind – Akal Takht Construction
Guru Govind Singh – Conversion of Sikh into fighter race.

When did Europeans arrive in India?
Vasco – da Gama - 1498 –reached Calicut.
Calicut ruled by king Zamorin
First Governor of Portuguese in India – Francisco Almeida.

East India Company established in 1600 AD.
Company allowed setting up a factory at Surat.
1611 – First factory at Masulipatnam.
First factory in Surat – 1668
Second at Masulipatnam – 1669.

British Conquest of Bengal
Battle of Plassey 1757
Siraj ud Daulah defeated
Battle of Buxar – 1764
British Forces led by Munroe
Alliance of Shah Alam, Nawab Mir Qasim and Nawab Shuja ud Daulah.British won the war.

Who were the Governor Generals of Bengal?
Robert Clive – 1757 -60 AD
First Governor of Bengal
Started Dual System in 1765
Warren Hastings 1772-1785 AD
Regulating Act of 1773 Ended Dual Government System
Founded Asiatic Society with William Jones – 1784

Lord Cornwallis 1786 - 1793
Zamindari System or Permanent Settlement Introduced
Codification of Laws
Introduction of Civil Services
Lord Wellesley -1789 - 1805
Adopted Subsidiary Alliance Policy
Governor Generals of India

Lord William Bentick – 1828 – 1835
Implementation of social reforms
 Sati Prohibition -1829 and Thugs Suppression – 1830
Suppressed child sacrifice and female infanticide
On the recommendations of Macaulay made English medium of higher education.
First Governor General of India by Charter Act 1833.

Lord Dalhousie
1848 – 1835
First Indian Railway line – 1853 – between Bombay and Thane.
Telegraph Lines 1853 – Calcutta to Agra
Introduced Doctrine of Lapse and captured – Satara, Udaipur, Jhansi, and Nagpur.
Wood’s Dispatch – Passed in 1854
Wood’s Dispatch concerned English learning and women’s education.

Who were the Viceroys of India?
Lord Caning 1856 -1862
Last Governor general and First Viceroy
Mutiny occurred during his period.
In 1858- Crown takes over the rule.
In 1857 Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay established.

Lord Lytton – 1876 – 1880
Organized Delhi Durbar in 1877
Queen Victoria decorated with the title – Kaiser –i- Hind
In 1878 - Vernacular Press Act passed
Lord Rippon - 1880 – 1884
Vernacular Press Act repealed
1882 -Local Self Government Act passed
1883 – Ilbert Bill Passed.  This bill allowed Indians to try European criminals.

Lord Dufferin - 1884 -1888
 Indian national Congress Formed
Lord Curzon – 1899-1905
Bengal partition – 1905
Lord Hardinge 1910-1916
1911- Partition of Bengal cancelled
1911- Shifted Capital –Calcutta to Delhi

Lord Chelmsford – 1916-1921
Montague – Chelmsford reforms – Government of India Act 1919.
Rowlatt Act 1919
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre -13th, April - 1919
Non Cooperation Movement
Lord Irwin
1926 -1931

Visit of Simon Commission – 1928
Dandi March – 1930
Civil Disobedience Movement – 1930
First Round table Conference –In England -1930
1931 -Gandhi Irwin Pact
 1931 - Civil Disobedience Movement withdrawn.
Lord Willingdon

Communal Award – 1932
Poona Pact Signed
1935 Government of India Act passed.
Lord Linlithgow - 1936-1944
Cripps Mission 1942
Quit India Movement 1942
Lord Wavell – 1944-47
Cabinet Mission Plan

Lord Mountbatten -March 1947 – Aug 1947
Last Viceroy – Of British India
First Governor General of Free India
 He retired on June, 1948.
India Independence Act 1947 passed on 4th, July – by British Parliament.
India Independence - 15th, August, 1947.
Succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari – First and Last Indian Governor General of Free India

What was the Revolt of 1857?
March, 1857 - at Barrackpur in Bengal - Mangal Pandey a soldier attacked his senior.
May, 1857- There was mutiny of Sepoys at Meerut
Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was declared Emperor of India
The immediate cause of revolt – greased cartridges.

Who were the Important Personalities
Bakht Khan – Captured Delhi from Bareilly Army
Nana Sahib from Kanpur
Tantia Tope
Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh
Rani Laxmibhai of Jhansi. She was defeated by Sir Hugh Rose.

Social and Cultural
What is Brahmo Samaj?
Brahmo Samaj was established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828
Opposed Sati, Casteism
Advocated Widow Remarriage
Prarthana Sabha Started by Justice M.G.Ranade.
1866- Brahmo Samaj divided into two
Brahmo Samaj of India –headed by Keshav Chandra Sen
Adi Brahmo Samaj by Devendranath Tagore

What is Arya Samaj?
Founded by Dayanand Saraswati in 1875
Motto - Go Back to Vedas
Members of the believe in one God and
Members reject the worship of idols.
Famous Work – Satyarth Prakash

What is Ramakrishna Mission?
Established by Vivekananda
 In 1897
Influencer –Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Head Quarter – Belur math
Margaret Noble (known as Sister Nivedita) popularized it.

What is Young Bengal Movement?
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio founded it.
Free Radical Thinkers
What is Theosophical Society?
Inspired by Indian Thought and culture.
Founded in US 1875 by Madam Blavatsky.
M S Olcott of US Army Joined her
1882 – Shifted to Adyar
Annie Basant Elected President in 1907.

What is Aligarh Movement?
The Aligarh Movement started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
Movement was to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India
Important National Activities

What is Indian National Congress?
Started in 1885 by A O Hume a Civil servant.
First session in Bombay 1n 1885 under W C Babberji.
72 delegates attended.
Surat Session of Congress – 1907
Congress split into two – Moderates and Extremists
Moderates Led by Gokhale
Extremists led by Lal, Bal and Pal.

When did Partition of Bengal happen?
By Lord Curzon in 1905.
Created East Bengal and Assam out of Bengal.
What is Swadeshi Movement?
Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo played important roles
Foreign goods and clothes burnt publicly.

What is Muslim League?
Founder Khwaja Salimullah and others
Special demands for Muslims including separate electorate.
What is Home Rule Movement - 1916
Started By Bal Gangadhar Tilak at Poona
Annie Basant at Adyar Madras.
Movement was for Self government and self rule in India

What is Lucknow Pact 1916
Signed between Congress and Muslim League.
Acceptance of separate electorates and demanded dominion status for the country.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre – 1919
People who gathered at Jallianwala Bagh were fired upon by General O Dyer. Many People were killed.

What is Khilafat Movement – 1920?
The Khilafat movement (1919-1924)
Started by Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
Aim was to pressure the British government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as Caliph of Islam

What is Non Cooperation Movement -1920?
First mass base movement under the leadership of Gandhi
The resolution was passed at Calcutta session of congress in 1920.
What is Chaura Chauri Incident -1922?
Mob of people at Chaura Chauri burnt 22 policemen.
After this Gandhi withdrew non cooperation movement.
What is Swaraj party – 1923?
Swaraj party was formed by Motilal Nehru, CR das and NC Kelkar .

What is Simon Commission?
Commissionj under John Simon to review and introduce reforms.
Opposed by India since no Indian was part of the commission
Lala Lajpat Rai Injured in lathi charge.

What is Lahore session – 1929?
Purna Swaraj
Indian national Congress in the year 1929 under the presidency of Mr. Nehru at the Lahore session declared Purna Swaraj as the goal.
31 st, December, 1929 – adopted tricolor flag unfurled.
26th, January declared as the first Independence day.

What is Bardoli Movement  - 1928?
Vallabh Bhai Patel led a movement against land tax.
Got the nickname Sardar.
What is Dandi March -1930?
Gandhi led a march to village Dandi to protest against the taxes on salt
Started Civil Disobedience Movement.
Gandhi Irwin pact
Between Gandhi  and Irwin
Gandhiji agreed to stop civil disobedience Movement and agreed to join second round table conference.

What is Communal Award 1932?
Ramsay Macdonald announced representations for Sikhs, Muslims, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and backward classes.
What is Poona Pact 1932?
Signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar for representations for depressed classes.

Demand for Pakistan 1940
Pakistan was coined in 1933 by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist.
Muslim League passed a resolution of a separate Pakistan in its Lahore Session. (1940).

What is Quit India Movement – 1942?
Resolution passed on 8th, August, 1942 at Bombay.
It asked Britishers to quit India.
What is Indian National Army?
Originally conceived by Rash Bihari Bose.
Subhas Chandra Bose escaped from India and reached Berlin.
In 1943 he Joined INA.
Subhash Chandra Bose took the leadership of INA from rash Bihari Bose.
Two INA Headquarters were formed. Singapore and Rangoon.

What is Cabinet Mission Plan 1946?
Cabinet Mission consisted of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and AV Alexander.
They visited India. The proposals were accepted by Muslim League and Congress.

What is Mountbatten Plan – 1947?
3rd, June, 1947 Mountbatten presented a plan.
15th, August, 1947 date fixed for independence.
Partition and Independence
All parties accepted the plan.
India Divided into two- India and Pakistan.
Indian Became an Independent State on 15th, August, 1947.
Sardar Patel became the Home Minister.
Except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh others signed the Instrument of Accession as on 15th, August, 1947.

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