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FAQs Computer Awareness 2

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What is a Central Processing Unit?

The entire works get done in the CPU - Central Processing Unit and it is also known as the brain of computer.

It controls all the parts of computer system.

CPU is further classified into two components

1.ALU - Arithmetic and Logical Unit

It is the part that executes the computer’s commands

The ALU can only do one thing at a time but can work very fast

2.Control Unit

This is the part of the CPU

It controls the machine cycle.

It directs the operation of the processor.

It takes numerous cycles to do even a simple addition of two numbers. 

What are the Types of computer?

Based on uses

Computers can be classified based on their uses.

Analog computers

It measures pressure, temperature, length etc of physical quantities and converts into its numerical value.

They are mainly used for scientific and engineering purposes.

Digital computers

It is used in counting of words, numbers, or other special symbols

It is also used in banking processes.

Hybrid computer

It is a combined form of analog and digital computer.

Informations are continuously converted into data that are received in the form of input.

Output may be in form of analog and digital.

They are used in machines and factories.

Based on sizes

Micro computers

Micro computers are the smallest computer in which ALU and CPU are based on the same chip.

Personal computer

It is single user system.

Used generally for personal and simple business needs.

Mini computer

Mini computers are more powerful than micro computers

Many users can access the computer at the same time.

It processes data very fast and quickly. 

Mainframe computers

They are giant in size and of highly storage capacity.

They can process a substantial large amount of data very rapidly

They are used in banks, large organizations and public sectors institutions.

Super computers

Super computers are capable of processing the huge amount of data in fraction of seconds.

They are used in very complex calculations.

The application of space shuttle or a satellite launcher is controlled by the super computers.

In India super computers are used for weather forecasting departments and other leading research institutions.

What are Programming Languages of Computers?

Programming languages are the set of instructions given to computer in order to do some specific works

It includes high level languages such as Basic, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada and Pascal.

The group of keywords for each language is totally different and there is a special sentence structure for grouping the programme instructions.

Programming languages are of several types

High level language-These are easy in comparison to the user friendly languages but are more complex than that of computer friendly

Machine language - computer understands its own language which is in form of binary codes.

Different types of CPU’s have their own machines languages. 

What is Assembly Language?

They are similar to machine language and their level lies between high level language and machine language.

They are easier to programme

They allow the users to use names as alternate to the numbers.

Fourth Generation Language

They are of higher level than that of high level languages commonly known as 4GL.

They are extremely different from machine languages and come into that category of computer language that is close to human language.

Whatever the language we use but we need to convert out programs into machine language so that computer can understand it.

There are two ways to convert a program into the machine language

A compiler translates any high level language of program into an executable machine language.

The compiler translate the entire document at once

Programme interpreter converts the high level language into machine language line by line.

It is very slow in comparison to the compiler.

What is an Operating System?

The operating system manages hardware and software resources of the computer and lies between the hardware and the application software.

The operating system is a program

Communicates between the various pieces of hardware like the video card, sound card, and printer the motherboard and the application.

Operating System functions can be divided into the following three groups

Allocates resources

Manages disks and files

Monitors activities

What are Common Operating Systems?

Windows 10, Windows XP, Windows 95 and Windows 98 are operating systems.

Windows NT is an operating system

This is applicable for client server type networks.

Windows CE is for palmtop and handheld computers.

The Macintosh from Apple is a multitasking operating system

UNIX is an operating system.

UNIX was developed by Bell labs

UNIX handles complex scientific application

Linux is an operating system similar to UNIX.

What is Application Software?

Word processor

Microsoft Word is a Word processor

You can create letter, resume, report and documents

Characteristics of word processor

Editing feature any type of mistake can be rectified

Permanent storage facility

Bullets and numbering- can be used by it if needed

Documents can be stored as long as desired

Find and replace any particular word can be searched or replaced in entire document.

Formatting - the typed text can be made in any form or style

Graphics -   It provides the facility of incorporating drawings in the documents

Header and footer - A header and footer is text or graphics such as a page number, the date or a company logo that is usually printed at the top or bottom of each page in a document.

Mail merge it is a facility which enables to print a large number of letter/documents with more or less similar text.

Page orientation - there are two types of page orientation.

Portrait that is lengthwise

Landscape that is widthwise

Spell check is capable of checking spelling mistakes and also can suggest possible alternatives for incorrectly spelt words

Tables can also be created in MS Word

Thesaurus - By using Thesaurus you can change a word with any of its synonyms. 

What is MS EXCEL?

It is application software from Microsoft.

It is a spreadsheet application.

Cells are organized into rows and columns to add, organize and manipulate data.

It helps to calculate, organize and format data.

What is MS Power Point?

It is an application to generate presentations.

Used for presenting charts, graphics, slides etc.

Used for education, training or business and other purposes.

What is MS ACCESS?

It is an RDBMS - Relational Database Management System

It stores, organizes and manipulates data.

Database is a collection of data of a particular type.

Tables contain organized data.

Each table has rows and columns.

It is used for storing and retrieving data.

What is Data Communication and Network?

For sharing data when we link two or more computing devices together it is called Networking.

Networks are a mix of computer hardware and computer software.

Signals are electric or electromagnetic encoding of data

Signaling is propagation of signal along suitable communication medium.

Transmission is communication of data achieved by the propagation and processing of signals

In parallel data transmission each wire carries a bit of information.

In series data transmission each set is sent sequentially one after another and it is slower than that of parallel transmission

In synchronous transmission, characters are transmitted as groups with control characters in the beginning and at the end of the bit train.

In a Synchronous transmission, each character is transmitted separately.

In simplex mode of communication channel is used in one direction

In half duplex mode of communication channel is used in both direction

In full duplex mode the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time

Computers are connected with each other for communication creating the computer network.

Computer network is of following types

Cluster Area Network

Controller Area Network

Desk Area Network

Local Area Network

Metropolitan Area Network

Personal Area Network

Server Area Network

Small Area Network

Storage Area Network

System Area Network

Wide Area Network

What are LAN Basics?

A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance

A number of terminals can be used in the whole building

All the terminals are connected to a main computer called server.

Types of LAN

Star LAN number of stations is connected to control station

The station passes information to the central station and then proceed it to the destination station

If one node of the network fails it does not affect the connectivity.

Ring LAN

Stations are connected by cables using point to point link

Network access is not under control of central station

Each station can pass data to its adjacent node

Data travels through each node so failure in a single node cause failure of network.

Bus LAN

There is no repeater

Stations are common and single communication line

Data is sent in packets and related station picked up by it

Any fault diagnosis is difficult.

What are WAN BASICS?

A wide area network spans a large physical distance

Geographically dispersed collection of LANs is called a WAN

Router - a network device connects LANs to a WAN

Like the internet, Most WANs are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management.

WANs use technology like ATM, frame relay and x.25 for connectivity.

What are Types of WAN?

Public Networks

These network are owned and run by telecommunication authorities

These are made available to an individual subscriber or an organisation.

Public Switched Telephone Networks

PSTN has been designed for telephone, which requires modem for data communication

It is used for FAX machine also

It is characterised by low speed transmission, analog transmission, less bond width, easy access, cover almost every place.

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FAQs Computer Awareness 2

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