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FAQs Medieval Indian History

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Medieval History

Who was Mahmud of Ghazni?

Between 1001 and 1027 – led 17 Expeditions to India

Plundered Somnath, Thameshwar, Mathura and Kannauj.

Infamous for Somnath Temple Plunder in 1025.

Who was Mohammed Ghori?

Prithviraj Chauhan defeated him in the First Battle of Terrain – 1191.

In the Second Battle of Terrain Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.

Defeated Jaichand in the Battle of Chandwar -1194

Captured Delhi.

Laid Foundation of Muslim Rule in India.

Died in 1206.

Qutab –ud- Aibak Given Charge of the Sultanate.

What is  Delhi Sultanate?

Slave Dynasty

Qutubuddin Aibak 1206-1210 AD

Lahore and Later Delhi were his Capitals

Laid Foundation of Qutub Minar

Built the First Mosque in India –Quwatul-Islam – Delhi and Adhai Din ka Jhopra – Ajmer

Also known as Lal Baksh.

While Playing Chaugan (similar to polo) died of horse fall.

Iltutmish 1210 – 1236 AD

Son in Law and Slave of Aibak

Formed Chalisa – Group of 40 Turkish Nobles (turkan – i- Chalgani)

IQTAS – Land in lieu of salary to officers

Introduced 2 basic coins of Sultanate -   silver tanka and copper jital.


1236-1240 –First and Last Muslim Woman Ruler of Medieval India.

Balban – 1266-1286 AD

Declared Sultan as representative of God On earth

Said king is Niyabat –i- khudai (deputy of god)

Introduced Sijdah or Paibos practice.

Separated military and finance department

What is Khalji Dynasty?

Jalaluddin Firoz Khalji - 1290 – 1296 AD

Accepted India cannot be a Muslim state alone as a large number were Hindus.

Alauddin Khilji – 1296-1316 AD

First Turkish Sultan who separated religion from politics

First Sultan to have permanent army, paid cash to soldiers,

Amir Khusrau and Mir Hasan Dehlvi enjoyed his support and patronage.

What is Tughlaq Dynasty?

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320 – 1325 AD

Formulated famine policy. Developed canals.

Built Tughlaqabad and made it capital.

Muhammad Bin Tuglaq.

1325- 1351 AD

Transfer of Capital to Devagiri- 1327

Introduction of token currency

South India became independent and three major independent states emerged.

What was Empire of Vijaynagar?

Bahmani Kingdom

Sultanate of Madurai

Ibn Batuta - famous traveler visited during his period.

He wrote - Rihla (Travels).

Firoz Shaz Tuglaq

 1351 – 1388 AD

Made iqtadary system hereditary

Principles of heredity recognized in civil offices and army

Historian Barani was in his court

 Ziauddin Barani wrote Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi and Fatwa-i-Jahandari

Invasion of Taimur – 1398 AD

Timur Lame -Mongol leader of Central Asia attacked Delhi.

Nasiruddin Mehmud was the ruler in Delhi at that time.

The Sayyid Dynasty

Khizr Khan founded the dynasty.

Three successors were incapable leaders.

What is The Lodhi Dynasty?

They were Afghans by race. First Afghan Dynasty in India.

Bahlol Lodhi – 1451 -1489

Revived the sultanate

Sikandar Lodhi – 1489 – 1517

In 1504 – Founded Agra and Made it a capital.

Ibrahim Lodhi – 1517 – 1526

Lost to Babur in first battle of Panipat 1526.

The Sultanate of Delhi – Ended.

What is The Mughal Empire?

Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

Babur 1526 – 1530 AD

Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the first battle of Panipat in 1526.

He established the Mughal Empire.

Tuzk-e-Babri is his autobiography. It is written in Turki language.

Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in the battle of Khanwa in the year 1527

Babur defeated Medni Rai of Chanderi in the battle of Chanderi in the year 1528.

Who was Humayun?

1530 – 1556 AD

Humayun was defeated in the Battle of Kannauj by Shershah in the year 1540.

Spent 15 years in exile.

Recaptured the throne in 1555 with the help of Bairam Khan.

Death in 1556.

Humayun Nama – written by Gulbadan Begum.

Sher Shah Suri

1540 – 1545

Master of Delhi during  Humayun’s exile.

Silver rupaya and copper dam were introduced by Shershah.

Grand Trunk Road restored by him.

During Sher Shah Period - Malik Mohammed Jaysi composed Padmavat (in Hindi).

Mughal Empire continued.

Who was Akbar?

1565 – 1605 AD.

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun.

At the age of 14 years was coronated.

In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556 AD) - Bairma Khan representing Akbar defeated Hemu Vikramidya.

1556-60 AD Akbar ruled with Bairam Khan guidance.

Won Gujarat in 1572 AD.

In Fatehpur Sikri – built Buland Darwaza to commerate his win of Gujarat.

In June, 1576 fought Battle of Haldi Ghati against forces of Mewar.

Akbar started - The Din-i Ilahi - Religion of God - a religious order in 1582 AD

His land revenue system was known as Zabti System or Todar Mal Bandobast.

There were nine eminent personalities in the court of Akbar. They were also known as nine gems.

They were Abdul Rahim Khan Khana, Abul Fazal, Birbal, Faizi, Hakim, Hukkam, Maan Singh, Mulla do Pyaza, Tansen, Todarmal.

Who was Jahangir?

1605 -1627 AD

Sir Thomas Roe and Captain Hawkins visited his court.

Painting as an art flourished

His wife Mehr –un Nisa was also known as Nur Jahan

On Jahangir’s order Fifth Sikh Guru Arjan Dev was hanged.

Who was Shah Jahan?

Khurram was his childhood name.

Considered the golden age of Mughal rule.

Built Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaz

Taj Mahal took 22 years to build.

Also associated with the Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid of Delhi.

Last years spent in captivity at Agra Fort.

Who was Alamgir Aurangzeb?

1658 -1707 AD

Called Darvesh or Zinda Pir

Annexed Mewar

Ordered execution of Ninth Sikh Guru-  Guru Tegh Bahadur in the year 1675.

Who was Bahadur Shah ?

 1707 – 1712 AD

Assumed title of Shah Alam I

Jahandar Shah

1712 – 1713


 1713 to 1719

Mohammad Shah

1719 to 1748

He was a pleasure loving person.

Shah Alam II

Collaborated with Mir Qasim and Shiraj ud Daulah and fought against the British at the Battle of Buxar – 1764

Who was Bahadur Shah?

Last Mughal Emperor

Leader of the revolt of 1857.

Which are the Important Mughal Architecture?

Red Fort – Shahjahan

Pinch Mahal at Fatehpur Sikri – Akbar

Moti Masjid –Delhi by Aurangzeb.

Bulund Darwaza – Akbar

Agra Fort – Akbar


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FAQs Medieval Indian History

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