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FAQs Modern Indian History

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Who was Shivaji?

Marathas rose to eminence with Shivaji

Parents Shaji Bhosle and Jijabhai

Ashtpradhan lived in the court of Shivaji

Who was Sambhaji? Son of Shivaji.

Aurangzeb army killed him

Son Sahu detained by Aurangzeb.

Rajaram - Succeeded Sambhaji.

Later Shivaji II ascended the throne.

Sahu - Released on the death of Aurangzeb

Peshwa domination starts during his period.

First Peshwa – Balaji Viswanath

Last Peshwa Baji Rao –II 

Signed subsidiary alliance with Lord Wesley in the year 1802.

Who are Sikhs?

Gurunanak – Founder of Sikhism. Born in Nankanasahib- Pakistan

Guru Angad – Gurumukhi  Script

Guru Ramdas - Got land from Akbar for establishment 

Guru Arjan dev – Compiled Adhi Granth. Completed construction at Amritsar.

Guru Hargovind – Akal Takht Construction

Guru Govind Singh – Conversion of Sikh into fighter race

When did Europeans arrive in India?

Portuguese

Vasco – da Gama - 1498 –reached Calicut.

Calicut ruled by king Zamorin

First Governor of Portuguese in India – Francisco Almeida.

English

East India Company established in 1600 AD. 

Company allowed setting up a factory at Surat.

1611 – First factory at Masulipatnam.

French

First factory in Surat – 1668

Second at Masulipatnam – 1669

British Conquest of Bengal

Battle of Plassey 1757

Siraj ud Daulah defeated

Battle of Buxar – 1764

British Forces led by Munroe

Alliance of Shah Alam, Nawab Mir Qasim and Nawab Shuja ud Daulah.British won the war.

Who were the Governor Generals of Bengal?

Robert Clive – 1757 -60 AD

First Governor of Bengal

Started Dual System in 1765

Warren Hastings 1772-1785 AD

Regulating Act of 1773 Ended Dual Government System

Founded Asiatic Society with William Jones – 1784

Lord Cornwallis 1786 - 1793

Zamindari System or Permanent Settlement Introduced 

Codification of Laws

Introduction of Civil Services

Lord Wellesley -1789 - 1805

Adopted Subsidiary Alliance Policy

Governor Generals of India

Lord William Bentick – 1828 – 1835

Implementation of social reforms

Sati Prohibition -1829 and Thugs Suppression – 1830

Suppressed child sacrifice and female infanticide

On the recommendations of Macaulay made English medium of higher education.

First Governor General of India by Charter Act 1833.

Lord Dalhousie

1848 – 1835 

First Indian Railway line – 1853 – between Bombay and Thane.

Telegraph Lines 1853 – Calcutta to Agra.

Introduced Doctrine of Lapse and captured – Satara, Udaipur, Jhansi, and Nagpur.

Wood’s Dispatch – Passed in 1854

Wood’s Dispatch concerned English learning and women’s education

Who were the Viceroys of India?

Lord Caning 1856 -1862

Last Governor general and First Viceroy

Mutiny occurred during his period.

In 1858- Crown takes over the rule.

In 1857 Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay established.

Lord Lytton – 1876 – 1880

Organized Delhi Durbar in 1877

Queen Victoria decorated with the title – Kaiser –i- Hind

In 1878 - Vernacular Press Act passed

Lord Rippon - 1880 – 1884

Vernacular Press Act repealed

1882 -Local Self Government Act passed

1883 – Ilbert Bill Passed.  This bill allowed Indians to try European criminals.

Lord Dufferin - 1884 -1888

Indian national Congress Formed

Lord Curzon – 1899-1905

Bengal partition – 1905

Lord Hardinge 1910-1916

1911- Partition of Bengal cancelled

1911- Shifted Capital –Calcutta to Delhi

Lord Chelmsford – 1916-1921

Montague – Chelmsford reforms – Government of India Act 1919..

Rowlatt Act 1919

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre -13th, April - 1919

Non Cooperation Movement

Lord Irwin

1926 -1931

Visit of Simon Commission – 1928

Dandi March – 1930

Civil Disobedience Movement – 1930

First Round table Conference –In England -1930

1931 -Gandhi Irwin Pact 

1931 - Civil Disobedience Movement withdrawn

Lord Willingdon

1931-1936

Communal Award – 1932

Poona Pact Signed

1935 Government of India Act passed.

Lord Linlithgow - 1936-1944 .

Cripps Mission 1942

Quit India Movement 1942

Lord Wavell – 1944-47

Cabinet Mission Plan

Lord Mountbatten -March 1947 – Aug 1947

Last Viceroy – Of British India

First Governor General of Free India

 He retired on June, 1948

India Independence Act 1947 passed on 4th, July – by British Parliament.

India Independence - 15th, August, 1947. 

Succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari – First and Last Indian Governor General of Free India.

What was the Revolt of 1857?

March, 1857 - at Barrackpur in Bengal - Mangal Pandey a soldier attacked his senior.

May, 1857- There was mutiny of Sepoys at Meerut

Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was declared Emperor of India

The immediate cause of revolt – greased cartridges..

Who were the Important Personalities

Bakht Khan – Captured Delhi from Bareilly Army

Nana Sahib from Kanpur.

Tantia Tope, Azimullah

Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh

Rani Laxmibhai of Jhansi. She was defeated by Sir Hugh Rose.

Social and Cultural

What is Brahmo Samaj?

Brahmo Samaj was established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 

Opposed Sati, Casteism

Advocated Widow Remarriage

Prarthana Sabha Started by Justice M.G.Ranade.

1866- Brahmo Samaj divided into two

Brahmo Samaj of India –headed by Keshav Chandra Sen

Adi Brahmo Samaj by Devendranath Tagore

What is Arya Samaj?

Founded by Dayanand Saraswati in 1875

Motto - Go Back to Vedas

Members of the believe in one God and

Members reject the worship of idols.

Famous Work – Satyarth Prakash

What is Ramakrishna Mission?

Established by Vivekananda

 In 1897

Influencer –Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Head Quarter – Belur math

Margaret Noble (known as Sister Nivedita) popularized it..

What is Young Bengal Movement?

Henry Louis Vivian Derozio founded it.

Free Radical Thinkers

What is Theosophical Society?

Inspired by Indian Thought and culture.

Founded in US 1875 by Madam Blavatsky.

M S Olcott of US Army Joined her

1882 – Shifted to Adyar

Annie Basant Elected President in 1907

What is Aligarh Movement?

The Aligarh Movement started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Movement was to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India.

Important National Activities

What is Indian National Congress?

Started in 1885 by A O Hume a Civil servant. 

First session in Bombay 1n 1885 under W C Babberji.

72 delegates attended.

Surat Session of Congress – 1907

Congress split into two – Moderates and Extremists

Moderates Led by Gokhale

Extremists led by Lal, Bal and Pal.

When did Partition of Bengal happen?

By Lord Curzon in 1905.

Created East Bengal and Assam out of Bengal.

What is Swadeshi Movement?

1905

Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo played important roles 

Foreign goods and clothes burnt publicly.

.What is Muslim League?

1906

Founder Khwaja Salimullah and others

Special demands for Muslims including separate electorate.

What is Home Rule Movement - 1916

Started By Bal Gangadhar Tilak at Poona

Annie Basant at Adyar Madras.

Movement was for Self government and self rule in India

What is Lucknow Pact 1916

Signed between Congress and Muslim League.

Acceptance of separate electorates and demanded dominion status for the country.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre – 1919

People who gathered at Jallianwala Bagh were fired upon by General O Dyer. Many People were killed.

What is Khilafat Movement – 1920?

The Khilafat movement (1919-1924)

Started by Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Aim was to pressure the British government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as Caliph of Islam..

What is Non Cooperation Movement -1920?

First mass base movement under the leadership of Gandhi

The resolution was passed at Calcutta session of congress in 1920.

What is Chaura Chauri Incident -1922?

Mob of people at Chaura Chauri burnt 22 policemen.

After this Gandhi withdrew non cooperation movement.

What is Swaraj party – 1923?

Swaraj party was formed by Motilal Nehru, CR das and NC Kelkar .

What is Simon Commission?

Commissionj under John Simon to review and introduce reforms.

Opposed by India since no Indian was part of the commission

Lala Lajpat Rai Injured in lathi charge.

What is Lahore session – 1929?

Purna Swaraj

Indian National Congress in the year 1929 under the presidency of Mr. Nehru at the Lahore session.

Declared Purna Swaraj as the goal.

31 st, December, 1929 – adopted tricolor flag unfurled.

26th, January declared as the first Independence day.

What is Bardoli Movement  - 1928?

Vallabh Bhai Patel led a movement against land tax.

Got the nickname Sardar.

What is Dandi March -1930?

Gandhi led a march to village Dandi to protest against the taxes on salt

Started Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhi Irwin pact

Between Gandhi  and Irwin

Gandhiji agreed to stop civil disobedience Movement.

Agreed to join second round table conference.

What is Communal Award 1932?

Ramsay Macdonald announced representations for Sikhs, Muslims, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and backward classes.

What is Poona Pact 1932?

Signed between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar for representations for depressed classes..

Demand for Pakistan 1940

Pakistan was coined in 1933 by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist.

Muslim League passed a resolution of a separate Pakistan in its Lahore Session. (1940).

What is Quit India Movement – 1942?

Resolution passed on 8th, August, 1942 at Bombay.

It asked Britishers to quit India.

What is Indian National Army?

Originally conceived by Rash Bihari Bose.

Subhas Chandra Bose escaped from India and reached Berlin.

In 1943 he Joined INA.

Subhash Chandra Bose took the leadership of INA from Rash Bihari Bose.

Two INA Headquarters were formed. Singapore and Rangoon.

What is Cabinet Mission Plan 1946?

Cabinet Mission consisted of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and AV Alexander.

They visited India. The proposals were accepted by Muslim League and Congress.

What is Mountbatten Plan – 1947?

3rd, June, 1947 Mountbatten presented a plan.

15th, August, 1947 date fixed for independence.

Partition and Independence

All parties accepted the plan.

India Divided into two- India and Pakistan.

Indian Became an Independent State on 15th, August, 1947.

Sardar Patel became the Home Minister.

Except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh others signed the Instrument of Accession as on 15th, August, 1947.

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