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Banking IBPS PO Clerical Insurance Railways UPSC SSC CTET NDA CDS RRB Exams General Knowledge Super Fast Revision for Competitive Examinations.

Science

What is Nutrition?

The components of food

Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Water.

Carbohydrates are made of carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

Main source of energy.

Fats

Gives twice the energy of Carbohydrates

1 gm -37KJ of energy

Enzyme lipase digests the fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.

Daily requirement of fats is 50 gms 

Proteins made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.

Important for growth and repair of human body

Proteins are made of amino acids

Diseases caused due to deficiency of proteins - Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.

What are Vitamins?

Important for Normal health, growth vision digestion etc.

Vitamins – Two types

Water Soluble – Vitamin b Complex, Vitamin C

Fat Soluble – Vitamins A, D, E and K

What are the Types of Vitamins and Deficiencies?

Vitamin A – Retinol – deficiency causes Night Blindness

B1 – Thiamine – deficiency causes Beri Beri

B2 Riboflavin – deficiency causes Cheilosis

C – Ascorbic Acid – deficiency causes Scurvy

D – Calciferol – deficiency causes Rickets

E – Tocopherol deficiency causes Sterility

K – Phylloquinone deficiency causes Hemophilia

Water – Important for survival and digestion, excretion, body temperature regulation.

Body contains 65 % water.

What is Blood?

Blood – fluid connective tissue

4.7liters.

6-8 percent of body weight

What are Blood cells?

RBS – Red Blood Corpuscles

RBC life 120 days

4.7 to 6.1 million cells/ul (micro liter) 

White Blood Corpuscles – WNC

Produced in bone marrow

Defend the body against infection and diseases

Platelets

Produced in bone marrow

Helps in blood clotting.

What are Blood Groupings?

Karl Landsteiner – Known as father of Blood grouping

Discovered A, B and O blood groups

Blood Group A

Can donate to A and AB.

Receive from A and O

Blood Group B

Can receive from B and AB

Donate to B and O

Blood group AB

Can Donate to AB

Can receive from A, B, AB and O

Blood group O

Can donate to A, B, AB and O

Can receive from O

What is Rh factor?

Blood antigen found in RBC

Presence or absence denoted by Rh+ or Rh-

Blood Transfusion Technique –Developed by James Blundell.

What are Important Communicable or Infectious Diseases?

Diseases caused by Virus

Small Pox – Variola Virus

Chicken Pox – Varicella Virus

Common Cold – Rhino Virus

Influenza (Flu) Orthomixo virus

Measles – (Rubello) Measles virus

Mumps - Mumps virus

Poliomyelitis – Polio Virus

Rabies – Rabies virus

Dengue - Dengue virus

AIDs – Retro Virus

Diseases caused by Bacteria

Diphtheria – Corynebacterium diptheriae

Pneumonia – Diplococcus pneumoniae

Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Plague – Yersinia pestis

Tetanus – Clostridium tetani

Typhoid – salmonella typhi

Cholera – Vibrio cholera

Syphilis – Treponema pallidum

Leprosy – Mycobacterium leprae

Botulism – clostridium botulinum

Malaria – Plasmodium

Sleeping sickness-Trypanosoma brucei

Kala azar –Leishmania donovani

What are the Common Diseases and Affected parts of the body?

Aida – Immune system of the body

Arthritis – Joints

Asthma – Bronchial Muscles

Cataract – Eyes

Conjunctivitis – eyes

Glaucoma – eyes

Diabetes mellitus –Pancreas and blood

Dermatitis – Skin

Diphtheria – Throat

Eczema – Skin

Goitre – Thyroid

Hepatitis Liver

Jaundice – Liver

Malaria – Spleen

Meningitis – Brain

Paralysis – Nerves and limbs

Pyorrhea – teeth

Pneumonia – Lungs

Typhoid – Intestines

Tuberculosis – lungs

Tonsilitis – Tonsils gland in throat

What are the important facts about Human Body?

Longest Bone – Femur – Thigh Bone

Smallest Bone – stapes (ear) 

Blood Volume – 4.7 Liters

Normal BP – 120/80 mm Hg

Life Span of RBC -120 days

Life span of WBC – 3-4 days

Universal Blood Donor –Type - O Rh D negative

Universal Blood recipient - Type AB Rh D positive

Average Body weight – 70 Kgs

Normal Body temperature – 98.4 0 F or 37 0 C

Dental Formula 2123/2123 – total 32

Child -2120/2120 - total 22 teeth

Gestation Period – 9 months

Largest gland – Liver

Largest muscle in the body – Gluteus maximus (buttock muscle)

Menstrual Cycle – 28 days

Minimum Distance for Proper Vision – 25 cm

pH of urine – 6.0

What are Important Alloys and Their Composition?

Duralumin - Aluminium and Copper

Brass- Copper and Zinc

Bronze- Copper and Tin 

Invar - Iron and Nickel

Stainless steel- Iron, Chromium and Nickel

German silver - Copper, Nickel and Zinc

Gunmetal- Copper, Tin and Zinc

Solder- Lead and Tin

Electrum - Gold and Silver

Constantan- Copper and Nickel

Manganin- Copper, Manganese and Nickel

What are Common and Chemical Names of Important Compounds?

Dry Ice –Solid Carbon dioxide

Bleaching Powder – Calcium Ocychloride

Caustic Soda – Sodium Hydroxide

Potash alum – Potassium Aluminium Sulphate

Epsom – Magnesium Sulphate

Quick Lime – Calcium Oxide 

Plaster of Paris – Calcium Sulphate

Gypsum – Calcium Sulphate

Green Vitriol – Ferrous Sulphate

Blue Vitriol – Copper Sulphate

White Vitriol – Zinc Sulphate

Marsh gas – Methane

Vinegar – Acetic acid

Baking Powder – Sodium Bicarbonate

Washing Soda –Sodium Carbonate

Magnesia – Magnesium Oxide

Laughing Gas – Nitrous Oxide 

Chloroform – Tricholormethane

Vermilion –Mercuric Sulphide

Borax – Borax

Alcohol – Ethyl Alcohol

Sugar – Sucrose

Heavy water – Deuterium Oxide

Sand – Silicon Oxide

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