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 Ecology What are the important terms and definitions?

FAQs - What is Adaptive behavior?

Ans -   Any behavior which contributes to an individual's reproductive success

FAQs - What is Allee effect?

Ans – It describes the positive relationship between the size of a given population and its growth.

FAQs -What is applied ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which uses ecological principles and insights to solve environment-related problems. .

FAQs - What is Aquatic plant?

Ans - A vascular plant adapted to living in salt water or fresh water aquatic environments.

FAQs - What is Area effect?

Ans - Hypothesis that larger islands are able to support more species than smaller ones.

FAQs - What is Atmosphere?

Ans - Earth's atmosphere is composed of gases and water which are retained by Earth's gravity.

FAQs - What is Autecology?

Ans - Studies the dynamics of populations and the ways in which they interact with the environment.

FAQs - What is Behavioral ecology?

Ans - Studies the ecological and evolutionary basis of animal behavior.

FAQs - What is – Biodegradable?

Ans - Capable of decaying through the action of living organisms.

FAQs - What is – Biodiversity?

Ans   Diversity among and within plant and animal species in a given environment

FAQs - What is biogeochemical cycle?

Ans - A pathway through which a chemical element or molecule moves through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

FAQs - What is – Biogeography?

Ans - The study of the geographic distribution of species on Earth.

FAQs - What is Bio-invader?         

Ans -A non-native species.

FAQs - What is Biological dispersal?

Ans - The movement of organisms from their birth site to their breeding site or from one breeding site to another.

FAQs - What is Biological magnification?

Ans - The increase in concentration of a chemical substance in the tissues of organisms comprising successively higher levels in a food chain.

FAQs - What is – Biomass?

Ans - The sum of all living organisms in a given area.

FAQs - What is Biomass pyramid?

Ans - It is called an ecological pyramid.

FAQs - What is – Biome?

Ans - The total biotic communities occupying area.

FAQs - What is – Biosphere?

Ans - The global sum of all ecosystems on Earth.

FAQs - What is Biotic potential?

Ans - The maximum achievable rate of increase of a population in a given area under ideal conditions. 

FAQs - What is Boreal forest?

Ans - Forest areas of the northern temperate zone, mostly consisting of conifers.

FAQs - What is carrying capacity?

Ans - The maximum number of individuals a given environment's resources can support, including the food and water available for that environment.

FAQs - What is chemical ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies the use by organisms of naturally occurring chemical compounds.

FAQs - What is climate?

Ans - The long-term average weather pattern in a particular place.

FAQs - What is climate change?

Ans - Change in weather conditions such as cloud cover, wind speed, temperature, rainfall or humidity in a specific region.

FAQs - What is climax community?

Ans - A community of plants and animals that has reached a stable state, occurring when the different species are best adapted to average conditions in a given area.

FAQs - What is commensalism?

Ans - A symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species, in which one of the organisms benefits while the other remains unaffected.

FAQs - What is community ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies the interactions between species within an ecological community.

FAQs - What is community?         

Ans -An assembly of various organisms living in the same environment.

FAQs - What is competition?

Ans - Organisms from the same or from different species competing with each other for food, living conditions, reproductive success, or any limited resource; the most adapted individuals come out on top and thus survive and reproduce. 

FAQs - What is competitive exclusion principle?

Ans - A biological rule which states that two species cannot coexist in the same environment if they are competing for exactly the same resource.

FAQs - What is coniferous forest?

Ans - One of the main terrestrial biomes, culminating in the taiga.

FAQs - What is conservation biology?

Ans - The study of Earth's biodiversity which aims at protecting natural habitats and the plant and animal species living in them.

FAQs - What is cooperation?

Ans - The process by which organisms work together for mutual benefit.

FAQs - What is courtship display?

Ans - Ritual social behavior between possible mates.

FAQs - What is carbon cycle?

Ans - The biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and earth's atmosphere.

FAQs - What is decomposer?

Ans - Any organism that breaks down decomposing bits of organic matter.

FAQs - What is decomposition?

Ans - The process, by which tissues of dead organisms break down into simpler forms of organic matter, thereby clears the limited available space in a biome.

FAQs - What is deep sea community?

Ans - Any community of organisms linked by a shared habitat in the deep sea.

FAQs - What is density dependence?

Ans -The dependence of the growth rate of a population of a given species on its density. 

FAQs - What is desert ecology?

Ans -The sum of interactions between both biotic and abiotic factors that occur in a desert biome, including interactions between plants, animal, and bacterial populations in a desert community.

FAQs - What is desert?

Ans - A landscape that receives less than 10 inches of rain per year.

FAQs - What is detrital food web?

Ans - A food web depicting the energy flow from photoautotrophs through detritivores and decomposers.

FAQs - What is detritivore?

Ans - Heterotrophs which consume decomposing bits of organic matter, such as plant litter.

FAQs - What is dominance hierarchy?

Ans - The organization of individual organisms into groups with a social structure.

FAQs - What is dominance species?

Ans - A species which characterizes and dominates an ecological community as measured by its primary productivity or biomass.

FAQs - What is denitrification?

Ans - The breakdown of nitrates (mostly in the soil), by anaerobic bacteria, into their constituent chemical elements: nitrogen and oxygen.

FAQs - What is desertification?

Ans - A process by which areas become desert-like wastelands with a lower and different biodiversity.

FAQs - What is ecophagy?

Ans - The destruction of an ecosystem.

FAQs - What is ecophysiology?

Ans - The study of the interaction of the physiological traits of an organism with its abiotic environment.

FAQs - What is ecoregion?

Ans - A region defined by its geography and ecology.

FAQs - What is ecosystem modeling?

Ans - The use of mathematics, computer programs and models to understand and predict ecosystem behavior.

FAQs - What is ecosystem services?

Ans - Resources and processes provided in an ecosystem and which benefit organisms.

FAQs - What is ecotone?

Ans - A transition area between two adjacent but different landscape patches.

FAQs - What is ecotoxicology? 

Ans - The study of the ecological role of toxic chemicals (often pollutants, but also naturally occurring compounds).

FAQs - What is ecozone?

Ans - An area that has characteristics of natural origin such as climate, terrain, vegetation, etc.

FAQs - What is emigration?

Ans - For an organism, leaving its native community for a new one.

FAQs - What is endangered species?

Ans - A species at imminent risk of becoming extinct.

FAQs - What is energy pyramid?

Ans - A graphical representation designed to show the biomass or biomass productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.

FAQs - What is environment?

Ans - The biotic and abiotic surroundings of an organism or population, and the chemical interactions between these factors that influence their survival, development, and evolution.

FAQs - What is environmental restoration?

Ans - Undoing the damage caused to an area by human activity or by natural disasters.

FAQs - What is estuary?

Ans - A body of coastal water, attached to both ocean and river, often coloured black as a result of silt and sediment being carried by the latter.

FAQs - What is ethology?

Ans -The study of animal behavior.

FAQs - What is evaporation? 

Ans - The slow vaporization of water from either the soil o from surface water.

FAQs - What is evolutionary ecology?

Ans - The evolutionary changes occurring to an organism within its population or within the wider community.

FAQs - What is exotic species?

Ans - An introduced species not native or endemic to a habitat.

FAQs - What is extinction?

Ans - The termination of an organism or of a taxon, usually a species, which occurs when the last individual organism of the taxon dies.

FAQs - What is extreme environment?

Ans - An environment in which few living organisms can survive.

FAQs - What is extremophile?

Ans - An organism which thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions.

FAQs - What is ecology?

Ans - The scientific study of interactions between living organisms and their environment. 

FAQs - What is ecosystem?

Ans -The total of interacting organisms (biocoenosis) and non-living things (biotope) in a specific environment.

FAQs - What is flagship species?

Ans - A species chosen to represent an environmental cause, such as an ecosystem in need of conservation.

FAQs - What is Food Chain?

Ans - A group of organisms related in a way that each member of the group feeds upon the one below it.

FAQs - What is food density?

Ans - The quantity or amount of food available

FAQs - What is foundation species?

Ans - A species that is a dominant primary producer in its ecosystem, both in terms of abundance and influence on other organisms and the environment.

FAQs - What is founder effect?

Ans - The accumulation of random genetic changes in an isolated population.

FAQs - What is functional ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies the roles, or functions, that certain species (or groups of species) play in an ecosystem.

FAQs - What is functional response?

Ans - The intake rate of a consumer as a function of food density.

FAQs - What is fungus?

Ans -Fungi are the major decomposers .They plays a crucial role in the nutrient cycle.

FAQs - What is fire ecology?

Ans -A branch of ecology which studies the ecological role of naturally occurring wildfires.


 FAQs – What is food web?

Ans -A set of interconnected food chains by which energy and nutrients circulate within an ecosystem?

FAQs – What is genetic bottleneck?

Ans - An evolutionary event in which a percentage of a population or species is killed or prevented from reproducing.

FAQs – What is global ecophagy?

Ans -   The destruction of Earth's ecosystems.

FAQs – What is global warming?

Ans - The increase in the average temperature of Earth's surface atmosphere and oceans.

FAQs – What is grassland?            

Ans - An area where the vegetation is dominated by grass.

FAQs – What is greenhouse effect?

Ans -   The warming of the Earth's climate those results from solar irradiance being trapped in the atmosphere.

FAQs – What is ground cover?

Ans - Any plant that grows over an area of ground, providing protection of the topsoil from erosion and drought.

FAQs – What is guest?

Ans - The generic term used for, mutualistic, parasitic and commensalist symbionts.

FAQs – What is habitat?

Ans - A specific ecological area that is inhabited by specific plant and animal species.

FAQs – What is habitat fragmentation?

Ans - The discontinuation of a species' habitat as caused by environmental change. 

FAQs – What is halophile?

Ans - A salt-loving organism.

FAQs – What is halophyte?

Ans - A salt-loving plant.

FAQs – What is heath?

Ans - Low-growing woody vegetation found on free-draining acidic soils.

FAQs – What is homeostasis?

Ans - The property of a system by which it regulates its internal environment and maintains a constant and stable condition; e.g. endothermic animals maintaining a constant body temperature.

FAQs – What is host?

Ans - An organism that harbors a parasitic, a mutualistic or a commensal symbiont.

FAQs – What is human ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology that studies the relationships between humans and their natural, social and built environments.

FAQs – What is hydrosphere?

Ans - The combined mass of water found on, under and above the surface of the Earth.

FAQs – What is hydrothermal vent?

Ans - An underwater steaming fissure that has a unique ecosystem.

FAQs – What is hypoxia   ?

Ans - Reduced oxygen content of air or a body of water, detrimental to aerobic organisms.

FAQs – What is indicator species?

Ans - Any living species that defines a trait or characteristic of its environment. 

FAQs – What is instinctive behavior?

Ans - The inherent inclination of an organism towards a particular complex behavior.

FAQs – What is insular biogeography?

Ans - The study of the distributions of biological communities on islands.

FAQs – What is intermediate disturbance hypothesis?

Ans - A theory that tries to predict how species diversity will change with varying levels of disturbance.

FAQs – What is interspecific competition?

Ans - A form of competition that occurs between individuals of different species.

FAQs – What is intertidal zone?

Ans - A coastal area periodically submerged underwater by the action of tides.

FAQs – What is intraspecific competition?

Ans - A form of competition that occurs between individuals of the same species,.

FAQs – What is invasive species?

Ans - A non-native species whose introduction to an area causes economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.

FAQs – What is jungle?

Ans - A dense, wet, humid forest, often tropical, which supports a large variety of wild plant and animal species.

FAQs – What is La Niña?

Ans - The counterpart to El Niño.

FAQs – What is lake?

Ans - An inland body of water localized in a basin and often fed by a river. 

FAQs – What is landscape ecology?

Ans - An interdisciplinary branch of ecology combining aspects of ecology, botany, biogeography, physical geography and environmental planning.

FAQs – What is large marine ecosystems?

Ans -   The 64 global extensive coastal sea areas, as indicated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, where primary production and biomass are higher than in the open ocean.

FAQs – What is lichen?

Ans - A composite organism that is the result of a symbiosis between algae or cyanobacteria and the hyphae of a fungus.

FAQs – What is life form?

Ans - An entity or being that is living.

FAQs – What is limiting factor?

Ans - Any essential resource that is in short supply in a given environment and therefore limits the possibilities for change in other aspects of the same environment.

FAQs – What is limnology?

Ans - The study of inland waters, often regarded as forming part of ecology or of environmental science.

FAQs – What is logistic curve?

Ans - An S-shaped curve that usually represents growth of a population of a given species.

FAQs – What is Lotka–Volterra equation?

Ans - A mathematical equation used to describe the predator-prey interaction between two given species.

FAQs – What is macroecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which examines ecological phenomena at the largest possible scale. Compare with microecology.

FAQs – What is mangrove wetland?

Ans - Mangroves are shrubs or small trees that grow in coastal saline or brackish water in the tropics and provide a habitat to many marine organisms. 

FAQs – What is marine ecosystem?

Ans - An aquatic ecosystem dominated and defined by the presence of saline water.

FAQs – What is marine snow?

Ans - Tiny particles, including dead organic matter from the upper layers of the ocean, sink deep into the ocean.

FAQs – What is mark and recapture?

Ans - An observational methodology used to estimate variables of a population under study, including population density, survival rates, movement, and growth.

FAQs – What is marsh?

Ans - A wetland found at the edges of lakes and streams

FAQs – What is mesopredator release hypothesis?

Ans - A hypothesis which states that as top predators dwindle in an ecosystem, an increase in the different populations of mesopredators occurs.

FAQs – What is metabolic theory of ecology?

Ans - A theory that explains the relationship between an organism's body mass and metabolic rate.

FAQs – What is microbial ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology that studies microorganisms.

FAQs – What is micro-climate?

Ans - A local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in surrounding areas.

FAQs – What is micro ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies ecological phenomena at very small scales. FAQs – What is migration the movement of organisms from one place to another?

FAQs – What is mimicry?

Ans - An adaptive similarity of one species to another that protects one or both species from predators. 

FAQs – What is monsoon?

Ans - The predictable occurrence of dramatic seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns.

FAQs – What is mutualism?

Ans - A form of symbiosis from which both individual organisms involved derive a fitness benefit.

FAQs – What is natural resource?

Ans - Combined natural biotic and abiotic resources.

FAQs – What is neutralism?

Ans - The belief that changes in evolution are caused by random mutation rather than by natural selection.

FAQs – What is niche?

Ans - A position or function of an organism in a community of related organisms.

FAQs – What is niche construction?

Ans - The process by which an organism alters its own or another organism's ecological niche.

FAQs – What is nitrification?

Ans - The oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite.

FAQs – What is nitrogen cycle?

Ans - The continuous cycle in which atmospheric nitrogen and compounded nitrogen are exchanged through the soil into substances that can be used by green plants;

FAQs – What is nitrogen fixation?

Ans - The change or conversion of nitrogen into nitrogen compounds by bacteria and algae.

FAQs – What is nutrient?

Ans - Chemical elements and compounds that provide organisms with the necessary nourishment.

FAQs – What is nutrient cycle?

Ans - The exchange and movement of inorganic and organic matter back into the production of living matter.

FAQs – What is ocean?

Ans - A vast body of salt water.

FAQs – What is paleoecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which uses data from fossils to reconstruct ecosystems of the past.

FAQs – What is parasite?

Ans - An organism that depends for its survival on a symbiotic relationship with another organism

FAQs – What is parasitoid?

Ans -   An organism that is a parasite for most of its life and that will usually kill its host.

FAQs – What is permafrost?

Ans - The permanently frozen layer of terrain found beneath the arctic tundra.

FAQs – What is pheromone?

Ans - A chemical excreted into the environment as a signal, which causes a natural behavioral response in members of the same population.

FAQs – What is phosphorus cycle?

Ans - The cycle movement of phosphorus through the environment.

FAQs – What is phytophysiognomy?

Ans -   The overall physical characteristics of a plant community.

FAQs – What is pioneer species?

Ans - A species that is the first to inhabit a previously unoccupied environment.

FAQs – What is political ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies how political and economic power affects ecosystems, and vice versa how environmental factors influence social activity.

FAQs – What is pollination?

Ans -  A type of fertilization in which pollen grains are transported through the air from one seed plant to the ovule-bearing organs of another seed plant and  is helped by either wind, water, or animal assistance.

FAQs – What is population density?

Ans - The number of individuals of a species living in a defined area.

FAQs – What is population ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which deals with the dynamics of populations within species, and the interactions of these populations with environmental factors. Also called autecology.

FAQs – What is positive feedback loop?

Ans -   A process in which the effects of a small change in a system include an increase in the magnitude of the change.

FAQs – What is predator?

Ans - An organism that lives by killing and consuming another living organism.

FAQs – What is prey?

Ans - An organism upon which a predator feeds.

FAQs – What is primary production?

Ans - The production of organic compounds out of carbon dioxide from atmosphere.

FAQs – What is producer?

Ans - An organism that produces its own food from inorganic material present in the environment.

FAQs – What is protocooperation?

Ans - A type of mutualism without necessity.  

FAQs – What is range?

Ans - The range or distribution of a species in the geographical area within which that species can be found.

FAQs – What is resource?

Ans - A substance or object needed by an organism for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

FAQs – What is resource partitioning?

Ans -   The coexistence of two or more competing species that use the same natural resource but in different ways.

FAQs – What is savanna?

Ans - A tropical or subtropical grassland ecosystem with trees, but without a closed canopy.

FAQs – What is secondary succession?

Ans - A stage of ecological succession which occurs after the original community has been destroyed or disturbed, as with a forest fire.

FAQs – What is selfish herd?

Ans -   Individuals in a group acting together without planned direction.

FAQs – What is social behavior?

Ans -   The behavior of an individual organism towards other members of the population of its species.

FAQs – What is sociality?

Ans – It is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups and form cooperative societies.

FAQs – What is soil ecology?

Ans -   A branch of ecology which studies the pedosphere.

FAQs – What is soil?

Ans - The naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering of Earth's surface.


FAQs – What is song system?

Ans - A series of discrete brain nuclei in songbirds used to learn and produce certain sequences.

FAQs – What is speciation?

Ans -   The evolutionary process by which new biological species emerge from a common ancestor.

FAQs – What is spring overturn?

Ans -   The mixing of lake water through the melting of ice cover, the warming of surface waters, convection currents, and wind action occurring in spring.

FAQs – What is stream?

Ans - A flowing-water ecosystem that starts out as a freshwater spring or as melting snow.

FAQs – What is survivorship curve?

Ans - A graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species.

FAQs – What is territory?

Ans - An area that one or more individual organisms defend against competition from other organisms.

FAQs – What is theoretical ecology?

Ans - The development of ecological theory, usually with mathematical, statistical and/or computer modeling tools.

FAQs – What is threat display?

Ans -   A signal used by individual organisms of certain species meaning that the user intends to attack.

FAQs – What is tree line?

Ans - Any delineation between habitats in which trees are capable of growing and in which they are not capable of growing.

FAQs – What is trophic level?

Ans - The position of an organism on the food chain: what it eats, and what eats it.


FAQs – What is tropical rain forest?

Ans - A biome characterized by regular, heavy rainfall, a humidity of at least 80 percent, and great biodiversity.

FAQs – What is tundra?

Ans - A permanently frozen, treeless expanse between the ice cap and tree line of arctic regions.

FAQs – What is umbrella species?

Ans - A species selected for making conservation-related decisions because protecting it indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological community of its habitat.

FAQs – What is upwelling?

Ans - Wind-driven motion of cooler nutrient-rich ocean water towards the ocean's surface, which stimulates the growth of phytoplankton.

FAQs – What is urban ecology?

Ans - A branch of ecology which studies ecosystems in urban areas.

FAQs – What is vegetation formation?

Ans - A concept used to classify vegetation communities.

FAQs – What is vegetation?

Ans - Ground cover provided by plants.

FAQs – What is virus?

Ans - A microscopic obligate intracellular parasite which infects and replicates exclusively within the living cells of another organism.

FAQs – What is warning coloration?

Ans - A warning signal that a prey species uses to advertise its unprofitability to potential predator species.

FAQs – What is water cycle?

Ans - The non-stop circulation of water on, above, and below Earth's surface. 

FAQs – What is water vapor?

Ans - The gaseous state of water.

FAQs – What is watershed?

Ans - The area of land from which rain and melted snow drains downhill into a body of water

FAQs – What is web of life?

Ans - The feeding relationships between different species in a given ecosystem

FAQs – What is weed?

Ans - A plant growing where it is not wanted, often at a high rate of dispersal.

FAQs – What is wetland?

Ans -A type of ecosystem consisting of land permanently or seasonally saturated with water; the habitat of aquatic plants.

FAQs – What is wildlife corridor?

Ans -A strip of land intended to facilitate the movement of wildlife species between disconnected areas of their habitat.

FAQs – What is woodland?

Ans -A low-density forest.

FAQs – What is xeric?

Ans - Extremely dry, as of a landscape or habitat.

FAQs – What is xerocole?

Ans -An animal adapted to desert life.

FAQs – What is xerophytes?

Ans - A plant adapted to dry conditions. 

FAQs – What is xylophagous?

Ans - Feeding on wood, as of an organism.

FAQs – What is yellow rain?

Ans  - A powdery, poisonous, yellow substance reported dropping from the air in Southeast Asia and found to be the excrement of wild honeybees contaminated by a fungal toxin. 










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